In the last few years, it has also been evident how the critics’ attention has focused on the sociological aspect of the picaresque novel, which clearly emphasize the pressures and problems of the current society, such as the obsession with integrity and honor (noted by Molho and Bataillon), and the expectation of social rise by sociologically impeded classes. This particular interpretation is sustained by historian Jose Antonio Maravall, stating that while the working class from the Renaissance is looking for new circumstances, and a free, open, shifting society, the picaresque people realizes that society is locked. The obstruction of upward mobility causes a semi-criminal and deviant behavior, that’s why picaresque characters usually lie and steal, but they’re not rebellious.
The History of the life of the Swindler called Don Pablos, by Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas, was published (probably unauthorized) in Zaragoza, 1626.
The Swindler is different from Guzmán because of its lack of moral obligation, an open ending and an aristocratic militant conception.
When this genre is finally resumed, after the time period approximately surrounding the success of Quixote (1605-1614), the light and funny aspects of Swindler continue to be present in many other pieces, which also intend to reconnect with the origins of the picaresque novel. The most famous ones were The history of the life of the Squire Marcos de Obregon, by Vicente Espinel, El Donado Hablador, by Dr. Jerónimo de Alcalá Yañes and Life and facts of Estebanillo González, by an anonymous author.